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It is common-place among commentators on the Middle East that the next war in that region will be fought over water, not oil. However, the evidence does not support this prediction; although water scarcity has occasionally provoked dispute in the Middle East, it has more often promoted co-existence between adversaries. Accordingly the authors put forward a new interpretation of water politics in which water is seen as a critical factor in moving countries towards co-operation rather than conflict with their neighbours. The basic reasoning behind this hypothesis is that water is too precious to be risked in warfare. The authors develop this hypothesis by detailed case-studies of the three major international water basins in the region: the River Jordan, the Euphrates-Tigris basin, and the Arabian Peninsula. In each case the same conclusion is reached - water scarcity should be seen as a platform for regional co-operation, thereby reinforcing peace, not provoking war.
Of all the great battles in which I had the honour of drawing my sword for the Emperor and for France there was not one which was lost. At Waterloo, although, in a sense, I was present, I was unable to fight, and the enemy was victorious. It is not for me to say that there is a connection between these two things. You know me too well, my friends, to imagine that I would make such a claim. But it gives matter for thought, and some have drawn flattering conclusions from it. After all, it was only a matter of breaking a few English squares and the day would have been our own. If the Hussars of Conflans, with Etienne Gerard to lead them, could not do this, then the best judges are mistaken. But let that pass. The Fates had ordained that I should hold my hand and that the Empire should fall. But they had also ordained that this day of gloom and sorrow should bring such honour to me as had never come when I swept on the wings of victory from Boulogne to Vienna. Never had I burned so brilliantly as at that supreme moment when the darkness fell upon all around me. You are aware that I was faithful to the Emperor in his adversity, and that I refused to sell my sword and my honour to the Bourbons. Never again was I to feel my war horse between my knees, never again to hear the kettledrums and silver trumpets behind me as I rode in front of my little rascals. But it comforts my heart, my friends, and it brings the tears to my eyes, to think how great I was upon that last day of my soldier life, and to remember that of all the remarkable exploits which have won me the love of so many beautiful women, and the respect of so many noble men, there was none which, in splendour, in audacity, and in the great end which was attained, could compare with my famous ride upon the night of June 18th, 1815. I am aware that the story is often told at mess-tables and in barrack-rooms, so that there are few in the army who have not heard it, but modesty has sealed my lips, until now, my friends, in the privacy of these intimate gatherings, I am inclined to lay the true facts before you. In the first place, there is one thing which I can assure you. In all his career Napoleon never had so splendid an army as that with which he took the field for that campaign. In 1813 France was exhausted. For every veteran there were five children-Marie Louises, as we called them; for the Empress had busied herself in raising levies while the Emperor took the field. But it was very different in 1815. The prisoners had all come back-the men from the snows of Russia, the men from the dungeons of Spain, the men from the hulks in England.
Enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and other enteric viruses can survive wastewater treatment processes, even after chlorination, and are found in the final effluents. These viruses can be detected by cell culture techniques with observations for cytopathic effect (CPE). Recently molecular detection of viral nucleic acids has been used. Most viruses found in wastewater are RNA viruses and RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method to detect these single-strand RNA enteric viruses. This methodology does not distinguish between infectious and non-infectious viruses. Viruses inactivated in the treatment process can be detected but do not pose a public health threat. Methods are needed to quickly distinguish the infectious viruses from inactivated viruses, both of which may be present in effluents. In this project we investigated the use of a method that combines cell culture and molecular detection. If a sample contains viruses that replicate in cell culture even without CPE, the proof of replication can be demonstrated by the detection of a replicative form (RF) in cell culture that is only present during replication of infectious RNA viruses.
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