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The Natural Arsenical Waters Of La Bourboule
An excerpt from a review in The Dublin Journal of Medical Science,Volume 101, published in 1896.
The rarity of arsenical springs, and their value in the treatment of certain classes of disease, give special interest to this tract. There is, if we remember aright, a mineral water containing arsenic in England, but it has not been utilized for therapeutical purposes. In France several springs-at Mont Dore, La Malou, Vals, Vichy, Plombieres, St. Nectaire-have traces of arsenic in their composition; but the spring of Choussy-Perriere at La Bourboule is an arsenical water. Its characteristic is a high percentage of the sodium arsenate and sodium chloride, with a small amount of iron.
This copious spring-discharging 23,310 litres in the hour-has a constant temperature of 60Â° C. Its composition per litre, as analysed by MM. Bouis and Lefort in 1878, is as follows:-Sodium arseniate, 0.02847 "(equal to 7 milligrammes of arsenic"); free carbonic acid, 0.0518; sodium chloride, 2.8406; potassium chloride, 0.1623; magnesium chloride, 0.0320; sodium bicarbonate, 2.890; sodium sulphate, 0.2084; "bicarbonate of lime," 0.1905; ferric oxide, 0.021; silicic acid, 0.1200; with traces of lithium chloride, manganese and aluminium.
The water of this spring is carefully bottled for export; but its good effects will be more surely produced on the spot, where internal administration is combined with baths. These are taken at a temperature of 35Â° C, and, as a general rule, continued for half an hour at a time.
For a list of the diseases likely (or certain) to be benefited by the use of the arsenical water of La Bourboule, we must refer our readers to Dr. Brown's pamphlet. It seems to include most of the diseases to which flesh is heir; and, perhaps, a grain or two of sodium chloride may be taken with the author's sanguine description. The temperature and composition of the water, however, will suggest to the practitioner cases in which the spring may be recommended with prospect of favourable results.
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Workshop On Microbial Source Tracking In Water
The drinking water and wastewater industries are interested in developing a better understanding of sources of fecal contamination. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers the potential to apportion the contribution of various animal groups to this contamination. However, while there are many methods available there is no clear indication as to the most appropriate approach. There has been little systematic comparison of methods and only a few blind trials, and issues of reproducibility, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, resolution, and robustness need to be addressed. There is confusion among potential end-users and some disagreement among scientists. Therefore, due to the uncertainty surrounding the most appropriate tools and applications of MST, a workshop of 45 experts representing water and wastewater utilities, academia, state and federal government agencies, medical institutions, and private laboratories was convened in San Antonio, Texas over a three-day period (February 16 - 18, 2005). The overall objective of the workshop was to identify the knowledge gaps and research needs for application of MST technologies by the wastewater and drinking water industries.
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